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The reliability and validity of Turkish Form of the Gender Constancy ScaleThe reliability and validity of Turkish Form of the Gender Constancy Scale

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Author(s): Rengin Zembat | Sadiye Keleş

Journal: International Journal of Human Sciences
ISSN 1303-5134

Volume: 9;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 336;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Early childhood | Kohlberg | gender constancy scale | validity | reliability Early childhood | Kohlberg | gender constancy scale | validity | reliability

ABSTRACT
Extended AbstractRationale of the study: Gender has been a (research) interest for social psychology as it investigates people's social lives and every aspect of their social behaviors; and for educational sciences because of classification period and its relationship with social learning (Dökmen, 2004, s.31). For this reason, there are a lot of different approaches (psychoanalytic theory, social learning theory, cognitive development theory and gender schema theory) trying to clarify the context and the development of gender and the variables it is related to. Kohlberg's views are referred to be the first ones that presented a cognitive approach while explaining gender development and cognitive development theory is acknowledged as the most effective judgment (Bem, 1989; Szkrybalo, 1998). Kohlberg suggested that gender development follows three sequential stages. These are gender identity/ labeling, gender stability over time and gender consistency across situations. A child who reached third stage, gender consistency across situations is identified to have gender constancy (Hollander, 2001). The purpose of the study: The aim of this research is to do linguistic equivalency, validity-reliability studies of Gender Constancy Scale (2004) which is reorganized according to the stages of acquiring gender constancy suggested by Kohlberg, based on cognitive development theory.Method: In this study, survey method was used. Gender Constancy Scale was used for data collection. The instrument was formed by using the items of the validated scales developed by Frey and Taylor, Slaby and Frey and Emmerich et. al. The original form of the scale is in English. The scale has fours sub-scales: Identity, Stability, Motivation and Consistency. The levels of motivation and consistency consist of close – ended and open – ended interview items. Firstly, the linguistic equivalence studies of the instrument were done and then, individual administrations were conducted. The participants of the study were 300 children aged among 3 to 7 and randomly selected from kindergartens, day-care centers of the universities and primary schools around those universities within the Istanbul City, in 2006-2007 educational year. For all groups, administrations were done between February 2007 – April 2007. Before administering the scale, necessary permission documents were gathered from government agencies and then, with this documents, the schools were visited and appropriate dates and times for administration were appointed. Moreover, the individual interview rooms of the schools were also determined which are convenient for the administrations. Each child was tested individually in a private room of their kindergarten, day-care center of the university or school by the researcher. The reliability study of the Gender Constancy Scale was investigated with means of levels of the measurement scale, standard deviation values, results of test-retest, and conformity coefficients between the independent observers, internal consistency coefficients and item-correlation analysis and construct validity works were done to reach validity of the measurement scale.Discussions and Results: Internal consistency coefficients of the adopted measurement scale and the English one do not show a similarity: Cronbach Alpha coefficients for identity level .50, for stability level .61, for motivation level .71, for consistency level (both girls and boys) .91. It is found that the Turkish scale’s internal consistency coefficients for the identity level are significantly lower and it is significantly higher for the general consistency. Conducting item-total statistics, which is used as a way to determine scale’s items’ reliability and validity, has shown that when some items were deleted from the scale, the Cronbach’s Alpha value has increased. However, since this was a study of adaptation of a scale, none of the items have been deleted from the adopted scale. Findings of the study suggest that consistency level of Gender Constancy Scale is only valid and reliable for 4 – 7 age group children.
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