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Renal Damage Mediated by Oxidative Stress in Mice Treated with Aluminium Chloride: Protective Effects of Taurine

Author(s): Mohammed A. Al Kahtani

Journal: Journal of Biological Sciences
ISSN 1727-3048

Volume: 10;
Issue: 7;
Start page: 584;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: pathophysiology | Aluminium chloride | kidney | taurine | free radicals

Aluminium is a ubiquitous metal that is potentially toxic to the brain. Its effects on other fundamental organs are not completely understood. This study aimed to investigate acute effects of aluminium chloride (AlCl3, 0.5 LD50) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of kidney of Swiss albino mice. Pathological changes in cortical renal tissue were also studied using light and electron microscopy. Moreover, the possible protective effects of taurine on AlCl3-induced oxidative damage in mice kidney was examined. AlCl3 significantly increased LPO in kidney when compared to control group. Levels of GSH and activities of GPx and GR were found to be decreased, while CAT and SOD remained unchanged in mice kidney treated with AlCl3. On the other hand, serum urea and creatinine were significantly elevated in AlCl3-treated group. Furthermore, the kidneys of AlCl3 treated mice showed shrunken glomeruli, intraglomerular congestion, mesangial hyperplasia and obliteration of the filtration slits. Loss of apical microvilli, degeneration of mitochondria and widened rough endoplasmic reticulum were also observed in Proximal Convoluted Tubules (PCT) of these animals. Treatment of taurine shortly after aluminum exposure resulted in a significant decrease in LPO and alleviating effects on GSH, antioxidant enzymes, blood urea and creatinine. In parallel, improvement of the histological and ultrastructural pattern in the glomeruli as well as in the PCT was observed after taurine administration. It can be concluded that the administration of taurine has a therapeutic role in preventing aluminium-induced nephrotoxicity, possibly through its unique cytoprotective properties such as antioxidant activity.
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