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Replication Checkpoint: Tuning and Coordination of Replication Forks in S Phase

Author(s): Nicole Hustedt | Susan M. Gasser | Kenji Shimada

Journal: Genes
ISSN 2073-4425

Volume: 4;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 388;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: checkpoint | replication | Mec1/ATR | Tel1/ATM | kinases

Checkpoints monitor critical cell cycle events such as chromosome duplication and segregation. They are highly conserved mechanisms that prevent progression into the next phase of the cell cycle when cells are unable to accomplish the previous event properly. During S phase, cells also provide a surveillance mechanism called the DNA replication checkpoint, which consists of a conserved kinase cascade that is provoked by insults that block or slow down replication forks. The DNA replication checkpoint is crucial for maintaining genome stability, because replication forks become vulnerable to collapse when they encounter obstacles such as nucleotide adducts, nicks, RNA-DNA hybrids, or stable protein-DNA complexes. These can be exogenously induced or can arise from endogenous cellular activity. Here, we summarize the initiation and transduction of the replication checkpoint as well as its targets, which coordinate cell cycle events and DNA replication fork stability.
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Tango Jona
Tangokurs Rapperswil-Jona