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Research: ETHANOLIC EXTRACTION AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF TWO NIGERIAN HERBS ON PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM WOUND INFECTIONS

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Author(s): Robert Kelechi Obi* | Ferdinand Chidi Nwanebu | Uduak Ugonma Ndubuisi-Nnaji | Lydia Ngwanma Onuoha | Nneamaka Chiegboka

Journal: Pharmacie Globale : International Journal of Comprehensive Pharmacy
ISSN 0976-8157

Volume: 02;
Issue: 10;
Start page: 1;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Nigerian herbs | wound infection | pathogens | phytochemicals | zone of inhibition.

ABSTRACT
The study was aimed at assessing extracts of two Nigerian herbs: Chromolaena odorata (leaf), Citrus sinensis (ripe and unripe peels), as veritable alternative therapies for treatment of wound infections. The study was carried out in four phases comprising isolation of different bacterial pathogens from clinical wound samples, crude extraction of plant materials, Kirby Bauer method of sensitivity testing, using the extracts and finally, phytochemical analysis of the extracts. Microbiological analysis of wound specimens, using the streak-plate technique, revealed the presence of bacteria involving in descending order of prevalence Klebsiella spp (25.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24.1%), Pseudomonas spp (18.2%), Escherischia coli (18.0%), and finally Streptococcus pyogenes (14.1%). The antimicrobial assay of the extracts showed that C. odorata produced zones of inhibition which ranged from 9.0 – 12.0mm with Pseudomonas spp (12mm), observed as the most sensitive and least, S. aureus (9mm), but no effect on Klebsiella; C. sinensis unripe peel produced zones ranging from 10.0 – 20.0mm with the most sensitive organism being S. pyogenes (20mm), with least sensitive S. aureus and Klebsiella (10mm each). Extracts from ripe C. sinensis did not show any zones of inhibition on any of the isolates. Phytochemical analysis of the plant materials revealed the presence of: alkaloids, flavonoids, cyanogenic glycosides, cardiac glycosides, tannins and saponins as the phytochemical components present in the leaves of both herbs. Concern over abuse of antibiotics and the resultant resistance of pathogens to these comparatively costly conventional drugs, has prompted several World-wide studies including the present one aimed at evaluating plant materials, as possible alternative, effective easily affordable sources in wound diseases treatment.
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