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Review of the Historical Evolution of Anatomical Terms

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Author(s): Algieri, Rubén D. | Pró, Eduardo A. | Forlizzi, Valeria | Ferrante, María Soledad

Journal: Revista Argentina de Anatomia Online
ISSN 1853-256X

Volume: 2;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 106;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: International Anatomical Terminology | anatomy | morphological sciences

ABSTRACT
Most of the medical terms of Greek origin are traditionally attributed to Hippocrates (460-370 BC). Claudius Galen of Pergamum (130-200 BC) developed a classification of bones and joints and described different brain areas. His teachings have remained unchanged for over a thousand years. Andreas Vesalius of Brussels (1514-1564), through the systematic study of human body structure, changed many concepts. He published his work in his production "De humani corporis fabrica libri septem", where a special attention is evident to the discovery and description of new anatomical facts. From here there is a revolution in the morphological sciences, where the same anatomical structure passed to receive different names. In the nineteenth century, the different anatomists in the world decide to meet in order to unify criteria regarding the anatomical structures and determine a only one universal language in the anatomical sciences. In 1895, in Basel (Switzerland) it’s approved a list of 5.573 terms, called Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA) and was written in Latin. Eponyms were deleted. In 1903, he founded the International Federation of Associations of anatomists (IFAA). In 1935, in Jena (Germany), approving the Jena Nomina Anatomica (JNA). In 1950, in Oxford, formed the Committee of the International Anatomical Nomenclature (IANC). In 1955, in Paris (France) it is agreed to adopt a Latin nomenclature based on the BNA, the Paris Nomina Anatomica (PNA). In 1980, for the first time in Latin America, takes place on the 11th International Congress of Anatomists, Mexico. In 1989, the International Committee of Anatomical Nomenclature, published the sixth edition of the Nomina Anatomica, without review by the IFAA. The same year, the latter established a Federative International Committee of Anatomical Terminology (FICAT). In 1998, he published a new list FICAT: International Anatomical Terminology (TAI), with the structures named in Latin language and their equivalence in English, listing which updates and supersedes all previous nomenclatures. In September 2001, the Spanish Anatomical Society translated this International Anatomical Terminology into Spanish language.The study of the historical backgrounds in the worldwide development of Anatomical Terms, give us valuable data about the origin and foundation of the names. It is necessary to raise awareness about the implementation of a unified, updated and uniform anatomical terminology, when conducting scientific communications and publications. As specialists in this discipline, we must study and know the existence of the official list of anatomical terms of use worldwide (International Anatomical Terminology), its equivalence with previous classifications, keeping us updated about its changes to teach it to new generations of health professionals.
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