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A Review and Modern Approach to LC Ladder Synthesis

Author(s): Alexander J. Casson | Esther Rodriguez-Villegas

Journal: Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications
ISSN 2079-9268

Volume: 1;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 20;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: analogue filter | doubly terminated LC ladder | gyrator substitution | synthesis procedure | symbolic maths

Ultra low power circuits require robust and reliable operation despite the unavoidable use of low currents and the weak inversion transistor operation region. For analogue domain filtering doubly terminated LC ladder based filter topologies are thus highly desirable as they have very low sensitivities to component values: non-exact component values have a minimal effect on the realised transfer function. However, not all transfer functions are suitable for implementation via a LC ladder prototype, and even when the transfer function is suitable the synthesis procedure is not trivial. The modern circuit designer can thus benefit from an updated treatment of this synthesis procedure. This paper presents a methodology for the design of doubly terminated LC ladder structures making use of the symbolic maths engines in programs such as MATLAB and MAPLE. The methodology is explained through the detailed synthesis of an example 7th order bandpass filter transfer function for use in electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis.
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