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Review of the Spirobolida on Madagascar, with descriptions of twelve new genera, including three genera of 'fire millipedes' (Diplopoda)

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Author(s): Thomas Wesener | Henrik Enghoff | Petra Sierwald

Journal: ZooKeys
ISSN 1313-2989

Volume: 19;
Start page: 1;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Keywords: Madagascar | biogeography | niche separation | endemism | Spirobolida | millipedes

ABSTRACT
Twelve new genera and 37 new species of Spirobolida are described: Corallobolus cruentus gen. n., sp. n., Sanguinobolus maculosus gen. n., sp. n., Colossobolus semicyclus gen. n., sp. n., C. oblongopedus sp. n., C. giganteus sp. n., C. minor sp. n., C. litoralis sp. n., C. aculeatus sp. n., C. pseudoaculeatus sp. n., Zehntnerobolus gen. n., Flagellobolus pauliani gen. n., sp. n., Riotintobolus mandenensis gen. n., sp. n., R. minutus sp. n., R. aridus sp. n., R. anomalus sp. n., Pseudocentrobolus aureus gen. n., sp. n., P. vohibasiensis sp. n., Granitobolus endemicus gen. n., sp. n., G. andohahelensis sp. n., Caprobolus andringitra gen. n., sp. n., Alluviobolus laticlavius gen. n., sp. n., A. tsimelahy sp. n., A. antanosy sp. n., Ostinobolus rufus gen. n., sp. n., O. stellaris sp. n., O. montanus sp. n., O. subterraneus sp. n., and Hylekobolus brachiosauroides gen. n., sp. n., H. rufus sp. n., H. griseus sp. n., H. albicollaris sp. n., H. goodmani sp. n., H. montanus sp. n., H. analavelona sp. n., H. latifrons sp. n., H. andasibensis sp. n., H. marojejy sp. n., H. anjanaharibe sp. n. All genera and species are endemic to Madagascar. Hylekobolus belongs to the family Spirobolellidae, while all other Malagasy genera of Spirobolida belong to the Pachybolidae. Among them, only Zehntnerobolus gen. n. is based on a previously described species: Spirobolus rubripes de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897, whereas the remaining 11 new genera altogether contain (a total of) 37 new species. Three of the new genera are large-bodied “fire millipedes” (>100 mm long) with striking red/black colour patterns. The new discoveries increase the number of endemic Malagasy genera of Spirobolida more than fivefold (from 3 to 15). The number of endemic species recorded from Madagascar has more than doubled (to 61). Body length of the new species varies greatly (between 23 and 170 mm). Keys to all Malagasy Spirobolida families, genera, as well as the newly described species, are provided. Four species, Rhinocricus collaris de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897, Spirobolus grandidieri de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897, Spirobolus olympiaceus Karsch, 1881, and Spirobolus sikorae de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897 are only known from females and are listed as nomina dubia. Some genera occur in the dry or spiny forest as well as in the rainforest ecosystem; species, however, are restricted to a single habitat type. In the rainforest, up to six different genera were collected in the same individual forest. Numerous genera are adapted to a special ecological niche. A high proportion of species are microendemic, often to some tiny, highly endangered forests. Of special conservation concern are the species which occur only in Analavelona, Ambatotsirongorongo, the subhumid, globally unique littoral forest of Petriky and the littoral rainforests of Mandena and Sainte Luce.
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