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Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal

Author(s): Marcelo B. Labruna | Salim Mattar V. | Santiago Nava | Sergio Bermudez | Jose M. Venzal | Katia Abarca | Luis Romero | Rita de Sousa | Jose Oteo | Jorge Zavala-Castro

Journal: Revista Mvz Cordoba
ISSN 0122-0268

Volume: 16;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 2435;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Acari | epidemiology | rocky mountain spotted fever | vector control

Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries), R. prowazekii (7 countries), R. typhi (6 countries), R. rickettsii (6 countries), R. amblyommii (5 countries), and R. parkeri (4 countries). The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies) were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands). For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes the current state of art on the rickettsial distribution in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal. The data obtained allow a better understanding on rickettsial epidemiology and distribution of vector ecology.

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