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Risk factors associated with the development of ischemic colitis

Author(s): Joaquín Cubiella Fernández, Luisa Núñez Calvo, Elvira González Vázquez, Maria Jesús García García, Maria Teresa Alves Pérez, Isabel Martínez Silva, Javier Fernández Seara

Journal: World Journal of Gastroenterology
ISSN 1007-9327

Volume: 16;
Issue: 36;
Start page: 4564;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: Ischemic colitis | Diabetes mellitus | Dyslipidemia | Acetylsalicylic acid | Peripheral arterial disease | Digoxin

AIM: To ascertain the role of cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, standard treatments and other diseases in the development of ischemic colitis (IC).METHODS: A retrospective, case-control study was designed, using matched data and covering 161 incident cases of IC who required admission to our hospital from 1998 through 2003. IC was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopic findings and diagnostic or compatible histology. Controls were randomly chosen from a cohort of patients who were admitted in the same period and required a colonoscopy, excluding those with diagnosis of colitis. Cases were matched with controls (ratio 1:2), by age and sex. A conditional logistic regression was performed.RESULTS: A total of 483 patients (161 cases, 322 controls) were included; mean age 75.67 ± 10.03 years, 55.9% women. The principal indications for colonoscopy in the control group were lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (35.4%), anemia (33.9%), abdominal pain (19.9%) and diarrhea (9.6%). The endoscopic findings in this group were hemorrhoids (25.5%), diverticular disease (30.4%), polyps (19.9%) and colorectal cancer (10.2%). The following variables were associated with IC in the univariate analysis: arterial hypertension (P = 0.033); dyslipidemia (P < 0.001); diabetes mellitus (P = 0.025); peripheral arterial disease (P = 0.004); heart failure (P = 0.026); treatment with hypotensive drugs (P = 0.023); angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; (P = 0.018); calcium channel antagonists (P = 0.028); and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (P < 0.001). Finally, the following variables were independently associated with the development of IC: diabetes mellitus [odds ratio (OR) 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.001-3.077, P = 0.046]; dyslipidemia (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.26-3.57, P = 0.004); heart failure (OR 3.17, 95% CI: 1.31-7.68, P = 0.01); peripheral arterial disease (OR 4.1, 95% CI: 1.32-12.72, P = 0.015); treatment with digoxin (digitalis) (OR 0.27, 95% CI: 0.084-0.857, P = 0.026); and ASA (OR 1.97, 95% CI: 1.16-3.36, P = 0.012).CONCLUSION: The development of an episode of IC was independently associated with diabetes, dyslipidemia, presence of heart failure, peripheral arterial disease and treatment with digoxin or ASA.
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