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Saliva levels of Abeta1-42 as potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study

Author(s): Bermejo-Pareja Felix | Antequera Desiree | Vargas Teo | Molina Jose | Carro Eva

Journal: BMC Neurology
ISSN 1471-2377

Volume: 10;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 108;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Abstract Background Simple, non-invasive tests for early detection of degenerative dementia by use of biomarkers are urgently required. However, up to the present, no validated extracerebral diagnostic markers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) are available. The clinical diagnosis of probable AD is made with around 90% accuracy using modern clinical, neuropsychological and imaging methods. A biochemical marker that would support the clinical diagnosis and distinguish AD from other causes of dementia would therefore be of great value as a screening test. A total of 126 samples were obtained from subjects with AD, and age-sex-matched controls. Additionally, 51 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients were used as an example of another neurodegenerative disorder. We analyzed saliva and plasma levels of β amyloid (Aβ) using a highly sensitive ELISA kit. Results We found a small but statistically significant increase in saliva Aβ42 levels in mild AD patients. In addition, there were not differences in saliva concentration of Aβ42 between patients with PD and healthy controls. Saliva Aβ40 expression was unchanged within all the studied sample. The association between saliva Aβ42 levels and AD was independent of established risk factors, including age or Apo E, but was dependent on sex and functional capacity. Conclusions We suggest that saliva Aβ42 levels could be considered a potential peripheral marker of AD and help discrimination from other types of neurodegenerative disorders. We propose a new and promising biomarker for early AD.
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