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São Gião de Nazaré (Portugal). Un tipo original de iglesia

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Author(s): Caballero, Luis | Arce, Fernando | Utrero, María de los Ángeles

Journal: Arqueología de la Arquitectura
ISSN 1695-2731

Issue: 2;
Start page: 75;
Date: 2003;
Original page

Keywords: São Gião de Nazaré | stratigraphic analysis | Visigoth architecture | Asturian architecture | reuse | São Gião de Nazaré | análisis estratigráfico | arquitectura visigoda | arquitectura asturiana | reutilización

ABSTRACT
The scientific importance of the Portuguese church of São Gião de Nazaré, considered one of the prototypes of 7th century Iberian Visigoth architecture, merited an archaeological analysis of its architecture in addition to the excavation of its cellars and prior to necessary restoration work on the building, which was on the brink of ruin. Readings discovered an original church with a nave with high rooms to the west and east, side rooms, iconostases and freestanding vaulted rectangular apse. The structure scarcely changed until its ruin and subsequent conversion into farm workers’ dwellings in the 18th century. The chronological ascription of the church, presently in doubt due to the problems concerning the architectural group traditionally called Visigoth, cannot be solved through the reading but can be enhanced by this as two different decorative groups are identified, one with reused pieces and the other with new sculptures. This deliberately sculpted decoration is now the chronological indicator to follow in dating the original church: for some, it is clearly Visigoth; for others, Asturian.La importancia científica de la iglesia portuguesa de São Gião de Nazaré, considerada como uno de los prototipos de la arquitectura visigoda peninsular del siglo VII, recomendaba un análisis arqueológico de su arquitectura complementario a la excavación del subsuelo y previo a los necesarios trabajos de restauración del edificio en amenaza de ruina. La lectura descubre una iglesia original de nave central con dos habitaciones altas a Oeste y Este, habitaciones laterales, iconostasis y ábside rectangular exento abovedado. Su estructura apenas varía hasta el momento de ruina y posterior transformación en casa labriega en el siglo XVIII. La adscripción cronológica de la iglesia, puesta en duda actualmente dentro de una problemática que afecta al conjunto de arquitectura tradicionalmente denominada visigoda, no se resuelve con la lectura, pero sí se enriquece con ella, al diferenciarse dos grupos decorativos, uno de piezas reutilizadas y otro de nueva talla. Este conjunto tallado ex profeso es ahora el indicador cronológico a seguir para fechar la iglesia original: para unos, de clara factura visigoda; para otros, asturiana.
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