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Signaling Pathways from the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Their Roles in Disease

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Author(s): Hisae Kadowaki | Hideki Nishitoh

Journal: Genes
ISSN 2073-4425

Volume: 4;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 306;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: ER stress | unfolded protein response (UPR) | apoptosis | diseases

ABSTRACT
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle in which newly synthesized secretory and transmembrane proteins are assembled and folded into their correct tertiary structures. However, many of these ER proteins are misfolded as a result of various stimuli and gene mutations. The accumulation of misfolded proteins disrupts the function of the ER and induces ER stress. Eukaryotic cells possess a highly conserved signaling pathway, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), to adapt and respond to ER stress conditions, thereby promoting cell survival. However, in the case of prolonged ER stress or UPR malfunction, apoptosis signaling is activated. Dysfunction of the UPR causes numerous conformational diseases, including neurodegenerative disease, metabolic disease, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Thus, ER stress-induced signaling pathways may serve as potent therapeutic targets of ER stress-related diseases. In this review, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms of the UPR and ER stress-induced apoptosis, as well as the possible roles of ER stress in several diseases.
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