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Species recognition through wing interference patterns (WIPs) in Achrysocharoides Girault (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) including two new species

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Author(s): Ekaterina Shevtsova | Christer Hansson

Journal: ZooKeys
ISSN 1313-2989

Volume: 154;
Start page: 9;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: taxonomy | cryptic species | structural colours | sexual dimorphism | wing membrane thickness | Chalcidoidea | Entedoninae | leafminer parasitoids | Achrysocharoides acerianus | Achrysocharoides platanoidae | Achrysocharoides robiniae | Achrysocharoides robinicolus

ABSTRACT
Wing interference patterns (WIPs) are shown to be an important tool for species recognition in the genus Achrysocharoides Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). This is demonstrated by combining information from two previously published papers, comprising two cases of cryptic species, and by new material including the description of two new species, A. maieri and A. serotinae from North America. The cryptic species were initially separated through their distinct male WIPs. Subsequent analyses of the external morphology uncovered additional morphological differences supporting the original findings through WIPs, and biological data further strengthened the identity of these species. The new species described here also differ in their WIPs but the WIPs are similar in both sexes. Thus they provide a strong link between male and female and demonstrate that WIPs can also be useful for species recognition when the sexes are otherwise difficult to associate. Both new species are from Connecticut, USA, and were reared from Phyllonorycter propinquinella (Braun) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on black cherry (Prunus serotina); A. maieri has also been reared from Ph. nr crataegella on pin cherry (P. pensylvanica). To facilitate the identification of the new species they are included in a previously published key to North American species of Achrysocharoides. As a supplement to colourful WIPs we also demonstrate that grey scale images of uncoated wings from scanning electron microscopy can be used for visualization of the thickness distribution pattern in wing membranes.
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