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Strength, Size, and Muscle Quality in the Upper Arm Following Unilateral Training in Younger and Older Males and Females

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Author(s): Leah C. Tanton | Thomas A. Cappaert | Paul M. Gordon | Robert F. Zoeller | Theodore J. Angelopoulos | Thomas B. Price | Paul D. Thompson | Niall M. Moyna | Richard L. Seip | Linda S. Pescatello | Joseph M. Devaney | Heather Gordish-Dressman | Eric P. Hoffman | Paul S. Visich

Journal: Clinical Medicine : Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN 1178-1149

Volume: 2;
Start page: 9;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Keywords: Sarcopenia | cross-over effect | muscle size | muscle strength | muscle quality | age | gender

ABSTRACT
Purpose: To assess strength, size, and muscle quality differences between younger and older males and females in response to training.Methods: The bicep and tricep of the non-dominant arm were trained for twelve weeks in younger and older males and females (n = 41). The bicep of both arms were assessed pre and post for muscle strength using one-repetition maximum (1 RM) testing, and size using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Results: Strength (p < 0.05), mCSA (p < 0.05), and 1 RM MQ (p < 0.00) increased in response to training in all subjects regardless of age or gender. Younger and older subjects had similar increases in strength (45.49 ± 15.30% vs. 42.67 ± 26.67% respectively), mCSA (16.22 ± 7.98% vs. 19.17 ± 6.19% respectively), and 1RM MQ (25.73 ± 15.76 vs. 19.67 ± 20.66 respectively). Women increased their strength (55.59 ± 19.45% vs. 32.87 ± 15.66% p < 0.00 respectively), size (20.36 ± 6.29% vs. 14.72 ± 7.28% p < 0.02 respectively), and 1 RM MQ (29.74 ± 18.33% vs. 16.30 ± 15.59% p < .02) more than men. In comparing age and gender, younger females increased their strength more than older males (56.42 ± 12.92% vs. 29.17 ± 21.8% p < .02 respectively). Older females also increased their strength more than older males (54.68 ± 25.73 vs. 29.17 ± 21.80% respectively). Younger females increased their 1 RM MQ more than older males (.18 ± .08 kg/cm vs. .06 ± .08 kg/cm p < .02 respectively).Conclusion: Strength and mCSA increases similarly in older and younger subjects. However, the overall strength and quality of the muscle seems to improve more in women than in men.
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