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Systemic treatment of xenografts with vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 reveals the immunologic facet of oncolytic therapy

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Author(s): Worschech Andrea | Chen Nanhai | Yu Yong | Zhang Qian | Pos Zoltan | Weibel Stephanie | Raab Viktoria | Sabatino Marianna | Monaco Alessandro | Liu Hui | MonsurrĂ³ Vladia | Buller R Mark | Stroncek David | Wang Ena | Szalay Aladar | Marincola Francesco

Journal: BMC Genomics
ISSN 1471-2164

Volume: 10;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 301;
Date: 2009;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background GLV-1h68 is an attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV) that selectively colonizes established human xenografts inducing their complete regression. Results Here, we explored xenograft/VACV/host interactions in vivo adopting organism-specific expression arrays and tumor cell/VACV in vitro comparing VACV replication patterns. There were no clear-cut differences in vitro among responding and non-responding tumors, however, tumor rejection was associated in vivo with activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and innate immune host's effector functions (IEFs) correlating with VACV colonization of the xenografts. These signatures precisely reproduce those observed in humans during immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction (TSD) that causes tumor or allograft rejection, autoimmunity or clearance of pathogens. We recently defined these common pathways in the "immunologic constant of rejection" hypothesis (ICR). Conclusion This study provides the first prospective validation of a universal mechanism associated with TSD. Thus, xenograft infection by oncolytic VACV, beyond offering a promising therapy of established cancers, may represent a reliable pre-clinical model to test therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the central pathways leading to TSD; this information may lead to the identification of principles that could refine the treatment of cancer and chronic infection by immune stimulation or autoimmunity and allograft rejection through immune tolerance.
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Tango Jona
Tangokurs Rapperswil-Jona