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Televizyon Haberlerinde Terörizm Olgusunun TRT’nin Haber Söylemi Bağlamında İncelenmesi

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Author(s): Sibel KARADUMAN | N. Mert BATU

Journal: Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi
ISSN 1302-1796

Issue: 25;
Start page: 359;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Terror | television news | news discourse | TRT

ABSTRACT
Terror news are always leading subject matters in newsworthy subjects since they threaten national and international security.Language and news discourse which are used in media representations related with terrorist actions and people who are victims ofthese actions(about martyrs or ordinary people) are very important. Beyond reflecting social events ro public opinion news mediahas a function of establishing, confirmingi reproducing and circulating existing social powers and government relationships.Within this context media frequently uses “blessing dominant forces”, integrating individuals with social structure for presentingdominant ideology’s ideas and attitude forms. Especially; since TRT is public television news language and discourse of TRTrelated with terrorism fact is striking for durability of status quo and providing governencyWithin this context, especially in recent “democratic opening out” period, changes, if exist, in discourse of TRT related withterror and terrorist events between past and present timne have been anlaysed with discourse analysis method.It is necessary to analyse the language used in news in order to understand the way dominant discourses in news texts aremade. Certain codes and professional values that are dominant within an industrial structure are used in the language of news. Adominant way of discourse is developed via news texts by using these codes. The most important linguistic characteristic of newsis that the news texts use the daily language both in written and audio-visual media. However, this daily language is transformedinto various styles of linguistic use during the production process of news texts. Especially in terror news that threatens thenational security, media demonstrates a similar position close to one another. It is possible to observe a structured and rootedlanguage in the Turkish media within the news regarding the actions of PKK. For example, there isn't any certainty uponterrorism-related concepts in the terminology. Such words as “terrorist”, “guerilla”, “attacker”, “urban guerilla”, “partisan” and“urban terrorist” are used by the media. Passive sentence structure is dominant in editing of both conflicts and operations interror news. Common ground of terror-related news is that they involve a way of addressing that calls people to common sense inview of close fights and deaths. In terror-related news that has a language covering up the violence taking place in the region, alinguistic structure that aims not to aggravate the conflicts.In news samples, we encounter word and sentence structures where governmental security forces are active in law and orderrelated cases. When these bodies represented as the active subject are convinced as being associations to be trusted by the society the individual who is not aware of it interiorises this via the discourse made by the news. Hence, dominant values are indirectlysupported and reproduced. When discourses or cases ensuring the continuity of the status-quo are represented in the media;alternative, resisting or different discourses are alternated and left out of the agenda. The language that dominates the discourse ofthese news is that people or opinions that are organised against the government, illegal or destroy the social order won't be givena chance to live. On one hand, media displays a behaviour that opposes to the legal order while it makes an indirect suggestion inthe direction of respecting this order. Hence, the dominant ideology that operates secretly and implicitly produces its hegemonycontinuously.The discourse of the news can not be held separate from people and organisations with power/strength in the society. "Inthis sense, question of how predominant discourses which are in the direction of reproducing dominance relations take placewithin the news discourse has a central role in studies in this field.” (İnal,1995:116). Therefore, the way the discourse ofgovernment takes place in media texts in terms of its discursive patterns and formats is important in line with the goal of thisstudy. This field is a problematic one. Because when the case is governmental speeches and declarations of governmentalauthorities are concerned, reporting is made by using the same expressions in the news texts (such as “declared, said, expressed”,etc.) Thus, we see that this format is more dominant in the language of TRT which is the official government channel. It isobvious that the declarations of the government itself is clearly reflected in the news discourse of TRT. Because of the productionformat of news texts produced, another discursive order of TRT does not allow other discursive orders and expressions. For theclosed text features in news texts, there is a structure which gives minimum place to comments and flexible discourses. In theofficial government channel, news concerning the government or terror do not allow to break this structure either, on thecontrary, more definite case definitions are made. Because governmental discourses are placed within remarks, expressions,themes and certain expression patterns that are produced around certain limitations and restrictions in news texts. In this sense,this study uses discourse analysis method in order to analyse whether there have been any changes in the news discourses of TRTregarding terror and terror incidents between the past and today, with a selection of news from the beginning of the “DemocraticInitiative” in specific.In the study, in order to analyse the news texts, it is firstly benefited from the formulation developed by Teun A. Van Dijkwithin his analysis regarding how media discourse is configured through news. Teun van Dijk does not consider news a genre buta discourse and perceives the news discourse as a product of the existing dominant discourses within the society. Van Dijk whouses the method of critical discourse analysis, analyses the news according to its macro and micro structures in his studiesregarding the news discourses. In newspaper news, the macro-structure of news consists of the heading, subheading, photograph,spots written with the different fonts and the news entries. The structure of news which follows a hierarchic structure is organisedby this chart. In the analysis of the macro-structure, such components as the headings, news entries, the main case, news sources,background and context information are studied. The things that constitute the micro-structures of news texts is the wordselections and the sentence structures (syntax). Besides, the convincing methods of the news, i.e. its rhetoric as well as the linksbetween sentences following one another take place among the micro-structural features. Micro structural characteristics of thenews have an important function in configuration of a discourse. According to T. van Dijk, discourse of a news is a whole thatconsists of its macro and micro features and can only be understood when analysed together with the production and receptionprocess of the news.The study is based on the comparative analysis that demonstrates whether there are any discursive similarities or differencesin discourses of TRT as the official government channel regarding the terror news before and after the democratic initiativeprocess. The comparison will be realised within the framework of T. van Dijk’s micro analysis.In this section of the study, the language and discourse of terror news on the main news bulletin of TRT recorded randomlybetween September 2008 and September 2009 are observed. It is tried to understand the configuration codes of the governmentaldiscourse in terror news and whether there is a change in the news discourses of TRT before and after the democratic initiative.In line with the main theme of the study, 5 analysis categories are determined. News samples are analysed under these categorytitles. These categories are as follows: “news regarding the martyrs”, “official government discourse ”, “discourses that highlightsthe power of Turkish Armed Forces (TSK)”, “discourses regarding terror incidents and terrorists”, “discourses of the civiliansand terror sufferers” and “discourses regarding the solution of the terror problem”.In this study which makes a comparison on the terror-related news discourses of the government television before and afterthe democratic initiative process as the period selected, the result found in the common ground of both terms is that definition ofthe government about the information on its organisational functioning during the production of information about itself;determination of the government as the subject in this information production area; reinforcement of the government's power inthe world of definition as well as the discourse of news and aiming at a democratic environment become even more clear. It isobserved that terror which might form a threat against the continuity of the status-quo is presented in a limiting structure in thenews with discursive patterns, making the auditing and restricting mechanism of the government function. This structureproduces itself over the discourse from the news language to the use of image as well as the limit of the background informationto certain ideological addressing.Before the democratic initiative process, reference to the integrity of the government and the nation is made in news texts andan extra importance is attributed to the Turkish Armed Forces who is responsible for protecting the government. The “rank ofmartyrdom” valued above everything is blessed with the language used in martyr news while social practices and power relationsare reproduced within this dominant discourse in news texts. The news language and discourses by TRT used in terror-relatedissues gives important hints about the status-quo, the power of the government and the continuity of the power.After the democratic initiative process, expressions regarding democratisation efforts are in majority. The common point andthe similarity in the news made after the initiative is that the atmosphere of democratisation and peace is the general reference ofnews discourses. It is found in news discourses that democratisation initiatives or attempts are put into action with control

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