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Disseminating quality controlled scientific knowledge

Televizyonda Yayınlanan Sağlık Programları ve İzleyicileri

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Author(s): Yasin BULDUKLU

Journal: Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi
ISSN 1302-1796

Issue: 24;
Start page: 75;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: Uses and Gratifications | Active Audiences | Health Communication | Health Behavioral Models | Health on

ABSTRACT
Described as “not only the unexistence of a disease or a disorder but also exact wellness in terms of mental, physical andsocial aspects” by WHO, health is term subjectively evaluated by the individual. However, communication described in manydifferent ways so far is the process with its simplest meaning in which information is transmitted from a source to the receiverwith an aim. Health information and communication opportunities are important for the quality of health care applications,succesful of health outcomes and healthier life. Connecting the health and the communication with each other, healthcommunication means “the application of the communicative rules and strategies on procedures performed to develop health.”Health is an area where effective communication is fairly important, as good communication, contributes to improve ofhealthcare quality. Healthcare providers with good communication skills, contribute their success is the achievement of betterhealth outcomes. All informative transmissions related to health on mass media instruments, between individuals, and patientsand doctors are considered in the frame of health communication.Health communication has emerged as a academic field over the past three decades. Health communication goals to improvehealth outcomes by sharing health information. Thus, attempts to change behaviors and to raise of awareness in a target audienceregarding health or health issues and solutions. With this purpose used to health promotion, health education and diseaseprevention methods. In this context “health promotion” is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and toimprove, their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behaviour towards a wide range of social and environmentalinterventions. “Health education” is training people about health and health issues. An health educational program directed toimprove, maintain, and safeguard the health of the community or person. “Disease Prevention” is focuses on the avoidance ofillness and minimization of threat.Health communication interventions goal is change to health behavior. Health behavior is an action taken by a person tomaintain, attain, or regain health and to prevent illness. A number of theories has been developed to predict, explain, and changehealth behavior. In literature health behavior models that have shaped health communication strategies are drawn primarily fromthe fields of psychology. These theories in this study includes: Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action, theTranstheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and Diffusion of Innovations Theory. This models the purpose of predictingand explaining health behaviors. The Health Belief Model assesses a person’s likelihood of undertaking a preventive healthbehavior based on the person’s perceptions of susceptibility to disease, benefits of the proposed action and barriers to making thechange. Theory of Reasoned Action, prediction of behavioral intention, spanning predictions of attitude and predictions ofbehavior. Transtheoretical Model posits “stages of change” in which a person moves from precontemplation to maintenance of abehavior change. Social Cognitive Theory identifies behavior as an interaction of personal factors, behavior, and the environment This include health behavior change to include environmental and social factors. Diffusion of Innovations Theory, seeks toexplain, how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through population.There is not broadly acceptance of theories in health communication area. But in this study examines the communicationtheories adapted to health communication approaches include: Rhetorical Model, interested to persuasive discourse and the art ofusing language to communicate effectively. Semiotic Tradition, focus on the nature of individual signs and sing meanings in healthcommunication. Phenomenological Model, theorizes communication as dialogue or experience of others. In Cybernetic Model,communication is theorized as information processing-processing that allows systems to function. Communication, according tothe Sociopsychological Model, is “a process in which the behavior of humans or other complex organisms expressespsychological mechanisms, states, and traits and, through interaction with similar expressions of other individuals, produces arange of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral effects.” In Sociocultural Model, communication is shared systems of beliefs, values,language, political economy, and various other institutional arrangements make communication possible. Finally, according to theCritical Theory, genuine communication occurs in the process of discursive reflection, but material and ideological practices incommunity often preclude or distort discursive reflection and hence prevent authentic communication.Health messages are widely covered in the media, and specially on television. Many people expose to willingly or unwillinglythese messages. Television offer effective facilities for communicating health related messages, which can increase knowledge andchanging negative behavior of target audiences. Television, provide enormous amounts of information about health in varietyprograms This information may be correct or incorrect. It provide facilitates for Health Education and disease prevention. But itis impersonal and typically involves only one-way communication. Despite, all television health programs are very important forthe community health. Therefore many television broadcasters are interested in this field. And each passing day has launched anew health program on television channels.Related to health communication, this study investigates health programs via television, the most effective one of mass mediainstruments and their audiences in the frame of the uses and gratifications approach. This study is composed of two stages.During the first stage, the contents of 100 units of health programs from three national TV stations were analyzed via “contentanalysis” technique. This content analysis stage to examine the content of health messages, program goals, and structure ofprograms present in televisions health programs from 1 March – 31 August 2008.According to the data during the first stage, itwas determined that the main goal of health programs is the development of health education and the health status in society, isto cover the messages to increase social awareness, phrases to lead to horror and anxiety in public is mostly used in order to drawattention to the topic, and most of the doctors attending these programs are invited from private health clinics. The second stageis to aim at determining the watching motivations of the health program audiences. For this reason, data accumulated from 763people living in Konya by interviewing. This research data were collected with questionnaire method. This questionnaire consistedof five sections; first section questions are related to determination of participants’ health status, second section questions,participants’ interest of health programs, third section questions, participants’ judgments about television health programs, fourthsection questions, participants’ viewed motivations of health programs, and finally fifth section questions, participants’ sociodemographiccharacteristics. According to the results of the second stage, the following motivation rates were determined:information-awareness (16.20%), finding a support and identification (11.60%), social activities and habits ( 9.73%), sharing andconfidence (8.64%).
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