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Thermal Degradation of Polyethylene Bags and Millet Stalks: Influence of the Temperature and the Local Concentration of Oxygen on the Conversion Rate of Carbon

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Author(s): Salifou K. Ouiminga | Thomas Rogaume | Tizane Daho | Franck Richard | Jean Koulidiati

Journal: Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science
ISSN 2160-0392

Volume: 02;
Issue: 01;
Start page: 155;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Carbon | Oxygen | Pyrolysis | Combustion | Conversion Rate

ABSTRACT
This paper concerns the influence of temperature and local concentration of oxygen on the conversion efficiency of carbon into CO, CO2, CH4, C3H8, C2H4, C2H2, C2H6, C6H6, during the thermal degradation of plastic bags and millet stalks. The experimental device used is the tubular kiln, coupled to an analyzer Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and a Non Dispersive Infrared analyzer (NDIR). Temperatures are considered between 800 and 1000°C. Local concentrations of oxygen during thermal degradation are 0%, 10% and 21%. On the one hand results obtained on the influence of temperature show that for each type of thermal degradation and whatever the temperature of the combustion, the rate of conversion of carbon remains substantially the same. In the case of plastic bags, the rate of carbon converted during pyrolysis is about 90% of carbon converted during reductive combustion. On the other hand, with millet stalks, the carbon converted represents only 60% of the rate of carbon converted during combustion to 10% oxygen. 1 to 2% of carbon not analyzed is in the form of aromatic compounds that are found most often in the soot and/or tar from this combustion system. Moreover, whatever the temperature, the overall efficiency of carbon conversion increases linearly with the local concentration of oxygen. During the thermal degradation of plastic bags, we see that the reducer environment has fostered the conversion of 7% of carbon more while the presence of oxygen in double proportion promotes the conversion of 27% carbon. Regarding the influence of the local content of oxygen, it is clear that for plastic bags, the reactions of oxidation of CO into CO2 tend to be favored for the benefit of those of hydrocarbons into CO. The formation of CO and CO2 by oxidation of light hydrocarbons is primarily from gaseous compounds CH4 and C2H4. At 950°C, we have also acetylene (C2H2) which is involved in the production of carbon oxides. At 1000°C, benzene (C6H6) heavily involved in the formation of CO and CO2. However, with millet stalks, more the local content of oxygen increases, more combustion is better, that is to say that the oxidation reactions producing CO2 are faster than the oxidation reactions of hydrocarbons into CO. The rate of carbon converted into CO and CO2 is higher for millet stalks than for plastic bags, due to this oxygen levels higher in millet stalks than in plastic bags. Similarly, for the millet stalks, from pyrolysis to combustion (at 10 and 21% oxygen), there is practically no hydrocarbon emitted.
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