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Author(s): Kiran B Kotade

Journal: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development
ISSN 0974-9446

Volume: 3;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 91;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Gilles de la Tourette | Tics | Tourette syndrome (TS).

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder named for French doctor Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who first described the condition in 1885. The core symptoms of TS include multiple motor tics and one or more phonic tics, which last for more than a year. The tics may be simple or complex in nature and vary in number, frequency and severity over time. Comorbid disorders include anxiety, depression, learning difficulties and sleep disorders, although attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are most common. Tourette's is no longer considered a rare condition, but it may not always be correctly identified because most cases are classified as mild.Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology of Tourette's, but the exact causes are unknown. In most cases, medication is unnecessary. The pathophysiology of TS mainly involves dysfunction of basal ganglia-related circuits and hyperactive dopaminergic innervations. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management can significantly impact psychosocial functioning. Morbidities may be a major source of disability and may determine ultimate prognosis. Additional management considerations must be made in those with TS symptoms. This is a review of recent literature focusing on the description of various signs and symptoms, causes, pathological findings, history and epidemiology. An outline of pharmacotherapy and pharmacological agents used in management of Tourette's syndrome has been made.

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