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Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Interleukin-8 and Interleukin-6 Are Involved in Vascular Endothelial Cell Capillary Tube and Network Formation Induced by Tumor-Associated Macrophages

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Author(s): Chun-Chung Lee | Ko-Jiunn Liu | Li-Li Chen | Yu-Chen Wu | Tze-Sing Huang

Journal: Journal of Cancer Molecules
ISSN 1816-0735

Volume: 2;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 155;
Date: 2006;
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Keywords: tumor-associated macrophages | angiogenesis | TNF-alpha | interleukin-8 | interleukin-6 | VEGF

ABSTRACT
AIM: The goal of this study is to investigate the involvement of inflammatory cytokines produced by tumor-associated macrophages in promoting tumor angiogenesis. METHODS: To study the angiogenic effect of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), we overlaid human umbilical vein endothelial cells on top of Matrigel containing MCF-7 breast cancer cells with or without macrophages and investigated the outcome of endothelial cell capillary tube and network formation. We also determined the levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the media of MCF-7 breast cancer cells co-cultivated with or without macrophages. Furthermore, anti-IL-8 receptor antagonizing antibody, IL-6 or TNF-alpha soluble receptor, and inhibitors against NF-kappaB, MEK, p38MAPK, and JNK, respectively, were used to determine which signal transduction pathways are involved in TAMs-induced angiogenic activity. RESULTS: The Matrigel mixed with MCF-7 cells and macrophages was more efficient than 100 ng/ml of VEGF to induce vascular endothelial cell tube and network formation. The expression of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha were significantly enhanced by co-cultivation of MCF-7 cells with macrophages. The promotion of capillary tube and network formation by TAMs was inhibited either with anti-IL-8 receptor antagonizing antibody or with IL-6 or TNF-alpha soluble receptor, suggesting that IL-8, TNF-alpha and IL-6 indeed participated in TAMs-induced angiogenesis. In addition, TAMs-induced angiogenic activity could also be attenuated by the presence of inhibitors against NF-kappaB, ERK, and p38MAPK signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: IL-8, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were involved in TAMs-associated angiogenesis via NF-kappaB, ERK, and p38MAPK-dependent signaling pathways.
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