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Using the TAP Component of the Antigen-Processing Machinery as a Molecular Adjuvant.

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Author(s): Vitalis Timothy Z | Zhang Qian-Jin | Alimonti Judie | Chen Susan S | Basha Genc | Moise Alex | Tiong Jacqueline | Tian Mei Mei | Choi Kyung Bok | Waterfield Douglas | Jeffries Andy | Jefferies Wilfred A

Journal: PLoS Pathogens
ISSN 1553-7366

Volume: 1;
Issue: 4;
Start page: e36;
Date: 2005;
Original page

ABSTRACT
We hypothesize that over-expression of transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2), components of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen-processing pathway, enhances antigen-specific cytotoxic activity in response to viral infection. An expression system using recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) was used to over-express human TAP1 and TAP2 (VV-hTAP1,2) in normal mice. Mice coinfected with either vesicular stomatitis virus plus VV-hTAP1,2 or Sendai virus plus VV-hTAP1,2 increased cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) activity by at least 4-fold when compared to coinfections with a control vector, VV encoding the plasmid PJS-5. Coinfections with VV-hTAP1,2 increased virus-specific CTL precursors compared to control infections without VV-hTAP1,2. In an animal model of lethal viral challenge after vaccination, VV-hTAP1,2 provided protection against a lethal challenge of VV at doses 100-fold lower than control vector alone. Mechanistically, the total MHC class I antigen surface expression and the cross-presentation mechanism in spleen-derived dendritic cells was augmented by over-expression of TAP. Furthermore, VV-hTAP1,2 increases splenic TAP transport activity and endogenous antigen processing, thus rendering infected targets more susceptible to CTL recognition and subsequent killing. This is the first demonstration that over-expression of a component of the antigen-processing machinery increases endogenous antigen presentation and dendritic cell cross-presentation of exogenous antigens and may provide a novel and general approach for increasing immune responses against pathogens at low doses of vaccine inocula.
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Tango Rapperswil
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