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Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae

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Author(s): Andreas F. Haas | Allison K. Gregg | Jennifer E. Smith | Maria L. Abieri | Mark Hatay | Forest Rohwer

Journal: PeerJ
ISSN 2167-8359

Volume: 1;
Start page: e106;
Date: 2013;
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Keywords: Planar optode | Dissolved oxygen | Interaction | Algae | Coral | Two dimensional visualization

ABSTRACT
Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp.) and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp.) separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. Size and orientation of these areas were dependent on flow regime. For corals and algae in close proximity the 2D optodes show areas of extremely low oxygen concentration at the interaction interfaces under both dark (18.4 ± 7.7 µmol O2 L- 1) and daylight (97.9 ± 27.5 µmol O2 L- 1) conditions. These images present the first two-dimensional visualization of oxygen gradients generated by benthic reef algae and corals under varying flow conditions and provide a 2D depiction of previously observed hypoxic zones at coral algae interfaces. This approach allows for visualization of locally confined, distinctive alterations of oxygen concentrations facilitated by benthic organisms and provides compelling evidence for hypoxic conditions at coral-algae interaction zones.

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Tangokurs Rapperswil-Jona

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