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In Vitro Antibacterial and Time-Kill Assessment of Crude Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Acacia mearnsii De Wild against Bacteria in Shigellosis

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Author(s): Olufunmiso Olusola Olajuyigbe | Anthony Jide Afolayan

Journal: Molecules
ISSN 1420-3049

Volume: 17;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 2103;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: A. mearnsii | antibacterial | shigellosis | time-kill | methanolic extract

ABSTRACT
Shigellosis is an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality among young children and old people for which treatment with antimicrobial agents is limited. Hence, the need for curative potentials obtainable from medicinal plants becomes inevitable. This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial potentials of crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Acacia mearnsii against some selected bacteria of clinical importance in shigellosis. The bacteria were inhibited by the extract to produce concentration dependent inhibition zones. The extract exhibited a varied degree of antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. The MIC values for Gram negative (0.0391–0.3125) mg/mL and those of Gram positive bacteria (0.0781–0.625) mg/mL indicated that the Gram negative bacteria were more inhibited by the extract than the Gram positive bacteria. Average log reduction in viable cell count in time-kill assay ranged between −2.456 Log10 to 2.230 Log10 cfu/mL after 4 h of interaction, and between −2.921 Log10 and 1.447 Log10 cfu/mL after 8 h interaction in 1× MIC and 2× MIC of the extract. The study provided scientific justification for the use of the crude methanolic extract from the stem bark of A. mearnsii in shigellosis. The degree of the antibacterial activity indicated that the crude extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds that could be useful for the development of new antimicrobial agents capable of decreasing the burden of drug resistance and cost of management of diseases of clinical and public health importance in South Africa.
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