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Współdziałanie pomiędzy glutaminianem a kwasem γ-aminomasłowym w ośrodkowym układzie nerwowym

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Author(s): Halina Car

Journal: Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia
ISSN 1896-6764

Volume: 4;
Issue: 3-4;
Start page: 116;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Keywords: glutamate | GABA | cooperation | brain | diseases

ABSTRACT
Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter inthe brain and it is the precursor of the primary inhibitoryneurotransmitter, GABA. It is estimated that over 50%of neurons in the brain are glutamatergic and up to 40%of brain neurons may utilize GABA. A physiologicprocesses require a balance between glutamate-mediatedexcitatory and GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptictransmission. The proper cooperation between theseneurotransmitters represents a fundamental mechanismfor controlling nervous system function. Presynapticglutamatergic and GABAergic receptors controlglutamate and GABA release at many synapses inthe nervous system. The glutamate and GABA can bereleased by the same neuron and this may enhancethe spatial and temporal control of synaptic transmissionand participate in the maturation of synapses, in motoractivity and it is the homeostatic opposition tohyperexcitability, e.g. during seizures. The synapticplasticity which is basis for neurogenesis in adults andduring development as well as in learning and memoryprocesses is strongly dependent on activity these systems.The modulation of proteolytic activity of extracellularmatrix in the brain is probably under control excitatoryand inhibitory transmission. The disbalance betweenglutamate and GABA is observed in elderly and mayparticipate in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatricdisorders including Huntington’s and Alzheimer’sdiseases, schizophrenia, stroke and many others. Theunderstanding mechanism of cooperation betweenglutamate and GABA is important for discovery newtherapies of CNS.

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