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Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu’nun Gözüyle Türk İnkılâbı ve İnkılâp Kadrosu

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Author(s): İlyas SÖĞÜTLÜ

Journal: Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi
ISSN 1302-1796

Issue: 23;
Start page: 202;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoglu | Turkish modernization | Kemalism | Turkish politics.

ABSTRACT
Every founder regime that wants to put pressure on communities to put them in a single pattern creates an ideal period or agolden era legend. When the excitement at the first few years of revolution cools down and concrete realities make itself apparent,longing for this golden era raises and this era is dreamt as a period inside of which is fulfill with the handy solutions of commonproblems. Moreover, some people, by going a step forward attributes these problems to become distanced from this ideal periodon purpose or as a result of blindness. By explaining basic problems that a society confronts as “deviating from an aim that hascertain limits” Turkey is one of the countries applying for traditional thinking way. In our country, one of golden era legendswhich are often consulted is without a doubt early republic of Turkey. Like in every golden era legend, also early republic is notconsidered as period which is going to be approached with a realistic point of view also not the one on which it has criticalassessments, it is considered to be taught, to comprehend even a reviving period. Because of this hegemony point of view, eventhe question of witnesses themselves of how they look this “dream period” from their own perspective and how they make senseof their activities of the period remains in the backstage.First of the impetus that directs this study is contrary to the hegemony point of view of the period, the realist evaluations ofYakup Kadri Karaosmanoglu, a witness closely acquainted with this golden era such good as to evaluate the era as a whole, aboutthe conditions of the period, actors of the period and revolution method. As second, these evaluations has such realistic andconsistent quality that they can make Turkish modernization regain one of its basic needs; dimension of criticism.Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoglu is one of the most important figures of “Kemalist” revolution cadre. He is involved inrevolution movement since the beginning of it and he is the one adopted the aim of modernization of Turkey which is the core of“Kemalizm”. Yakup Kadri is close enough to Mustafa Kemal as being one of the journalists inside camp when he entered the cityof Izmir. Having writings in newspapers called “Hâkimiyet-i Milliye” and “Cumhuriyet” in the side of ruling party, Yakup Kadribecomes a member of Turkish Grand National Assembly from Mardin between the years of 1923 and 1931 and from Manisabetween the years of 1931- 1934.Besides being faithful toward revolutions and so close to Ataturk, the only leader of the period without doubt, Yakup Kadri isa distant and an unfriendly person towards the superior group of CHP. His honest characteristics and being a person who doesn’tcome to terms with the realities easily has big proportion on that situation. Yet he is not like the ones who gravitates the magic ofcharisma. Instead of building reputation by acting in political way like many of his contemporaneous did, he preferred to becandidness and he didn’t refrain from bearing its results.The thing that is supposed to be done to come out as structural and locally of the “modern one” in Turkish society is notmythicizing of a certain level of it or not getting it unquestionable but to evaluate it over and over again in the critical way ofthinking. So the thing we call modernity is a fact that already follows the criticism way and comes into existence. Mythicising of aperiod and mythologizing it will cause not to overcome problems that we already encountered, at the most it will cause topostpone facing with them, drifting away from the realities step by step and it will also cause us to become enstranged. With hiswritings and critics, Yakup Kadri tried to obviate becoming enstranged and connect the modernization with the society. With this behavior, he is an unusual person among Turkish revolutionists. The main feature of him which drives him forward is maintainingcritical attitude towards revolution methods. According to Yakup Kadri, the revolution cadre was not idealist and determinedenough. From the Yakup Kadri’s point of view, first of the biggest dilemmas of Turkish revolution is that deficiency of “cadre”.There is no emotional and idealistic unity among the current groups. Main reason of this situation is taking the stage and beingincorporated into the period in this new establishment of old establishment’s dominants. Like in every period, some of them werebusy with estate speculation and using their authority for their own personal convenience. Briefly, Mustafa Kemal, the leader ofrevolution, is not lucky as he is supposed to be about the groups.Second basic criticism of Yakup Kadri is about concept and the method of revolution. As to him, revolutions that have beendone are mostly at law level and all about modernization studies within the government boundary. But the people as Recep Pekerwho is secretary general in the group of revolution, suppose that the revolution has reached its goal by watching presentcondition. However, according to Yakup Kadri, legal arrangements are the head of subject. Or else though the disengagementclaims, Republic would continue some parts of Ottoman modernization reluctantly. For him, exact revolution is making amodernization project applicable which activates internal dynamics of society. If the projects which can initiate radical changes inthe social structure, do not put into the action and institutional changes cannot be supplied with the social changes,modernization will only be superficial and “old” will keep carrying on itself under this spatial harmony.As to Yakup Kadri, for accomplishment of the revolutions there is need for long term projects, constant and vigorous studiesthat can revolutionize society. Thought of Yakup Kadri and environment of the group that he is a member of, is being attributedof the revolution to mass and carrying out of Turkish revolution within strict projects and programs. This can come to alive onlyif objective conditions which help revolution of modernization at the law level can be functional are built up. Or else, revolutioncannot get over from being so called and existing on paper only.According to Yakup Kadri, social change can only come true with large scaled economical improvement project campaign.Also Western countries substantially reached today’s level as a result of economical transformation. There is no way that can makepossible to become a “western country” by imitating the institutions emerged by western countries that is specific to theireconomical system. However, if essential politics aren’t called out to reflect these arrangements existing on paper only to sociallife and to establish them, things that have been done will be faced with danger of removing with adverse effect.These considerations of Yakup Kadri show that there is no way that a change can go beyond governmental boundaries andreach society levels besides having limited range of change by a method that has superior formatives only with political decisionwhich is not stood up to interior dynamics of society and agent of which is not society. Moreover this method, besides beingappropriate of that period for building up modernization which is fundamental and feeds itself, functions as abrasive of objectivebase of a change in this direction. However institutional modernization inholds disadvantage of bedevilment of modernization’stransition because of causing extinction of resources which can intervene in a more realistic changing if it is at the mercy of civilsociety that is underdeveloped and already has very limited amount of capital. Yakup Kadri is one of the rare revolutionists amongelite republicans that can notice this reality and anatomize it. But his critics aren’t welcomed by the ruling group except Ataturkand make him suspended from the headquarters as soon as possible.
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