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Activity Guided Isolation of Cytotoxic Compounds from Indian Medicinal Plants Using BSL Bioassay

Author(s): Hullatti K. K. | Uma D. Murthy

Journal: Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research
ISSN 0976-3171

Volume: 1;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 16;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: Achyranthes aspera | BSL Bioassay | Piper longum | Semecarpus anacardium

Objective: In the present work, fruits of Piper longum, Semecarpus anacardium, and whole plant of Achyranthus aspera have been screened for their cytotoxic constituents based on their traditional and Ayurvedic uses.Materials & Methods: Brine shrimp lethality (BSL) bioassay was used as a prescreening method to select the secondary metabolites with cytotoxic effect. Petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol and water extracts of three Indian medicinal plants were tested by using this method.Results: Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of Piper longum fruits showed grater cytotoxicity with LC50 values of 0.104 and 5.719 g/ml, and various fractions of petroleum ether extract of Piper longum fruits showed the significant cytotoxicity.Conclusion: The activity guided isolation of the active principles from Piper longum fruits have given us with five biologically active, cytotoxic fractions one of them was identified as -sitosterol. This method of BSL bioassay can be successfully used as a cheaper, reliable and quicker tool for isolating the biologically active fractions especially antitumor (cytotoxic) agents from the natural sources.
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