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Assessment of Heavy Metals Immobilization in Artificially Contaminated Soils Using Some Local Amendments

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Author(s): Noha H. Abdel-Kader | Reda R. Shahin | Hasan A. Khater

Journal: Open Journal of Metal
ISSN 2164-2761

Volume: 03;
Issue: 02;
Start page: 68;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: Heavy Metals | Immobilization Efficiency | Rock Phosphate | Portland Cement | Lime-Stone

ABSTRACT
Three alluvial soil samples with different textures were artificially polluted with chloride solutions of Cd, Pb, Co and chromate solution for Cr. The aqua-regia extracted concentration ranges in the artificially polluted soils were 1134 - 1489 mg·kg-1 for Pb, 854 - 938 mg·kg-1 for Cr, 166 - 346 mg·kg-1 for Co and 44 - 54 mg·kg-1 for Cd. The aqua-regia extracted metals were the highest in the spiked clay soil due to its high adsorption capacity. Rock phosphate (PR), lime-stone (LS) and Portland-cement (Cem) were mixed with the spiked soils at 1% and 2% rates (w/w) and incubated at 30 C for 2, 7, 14, 30, 60, 150 and 360 days. The extracted DTPA metals significantly decreased with different magnitudes with increasing the incubation period accompanied by increases in both pH and EC. The data showed that cement (Cem) treatment dropped the DTPA-Pb from @ 1000 to @ 400 mg·kg-1 in all the studied soils (60% decrease) in the first 2 months while it gradually decreased from 400 to 200 mg·kg-1 (20% decrease) in the next 10 months. Limestone (LS) and rock phosphate (PR) materials were relatively less effective in lowering DTPA-Pb after 12 months of incubation. The data showed also that cement (Cem) treatment was the most effective one in lowering DTPA-Cd by @ 60% as compared to the un-amended soils after 12 months of soil incubation. Extractable DTPA-Co and Cr showed consistent decreases with time down to nearly 50% of un-amended soils due to the effect of the added amendments after 12 months of incubation with superior reductions for the cement treatment in all the investigated soils. The statistical analysis confirmed that in all the studied metals and treatment, cement treatment (Cem) was significantly the most effective in lowering the DTPA extracted metals as indicated from LSD test. It was found that up to 73% and 57% of the applied Pb and Cd, respectively, were fixed by only 1% cement. However, the present study showed that from the practical and economic points of view, that 1% Cement was the best treatment to immobilize Pb and Cd from all the artificially polluted soils.
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