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Assessment of the Quality of Water from Hand-Dug Wells in Ghana

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Author(s): Marian Asantewah Nkansah | Nathaniel Owusu Boadi | Mercy Badu

Journal: Environmental Health Insights
ISSN 1178-6302

Volume: 2010;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 7;
Date: 2010;
Original page

ABSTRACT
This study focused upon the determination of physicochemical and microbial properties, including metals, selected anions and coliform bacteria in drinking water samples from hand-dug wells in the Kumasi metropolis of the Republic of Ghana. The purpose was to assess the quality of water from these sources. Ten different water samples were taken from different parts of Kumasi, the capital of the Ashanti region of Ghana and analyzed for physicochemical parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity total hardness and coliform bacteria. Metals and anions analyzed were Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, NO3−, NO2−, SO4 2-, PO4 2−, F− and Cl−. Bacteria analysed were total coliform and Escherichia coli. The data showed variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH, 6.30–0.70; conductivity (EC), 46–682 µS/cm; PO43-, 0.67–76.00 mg/L; F−, 0.20–0.80 mg/L; NO3−, 0–0.968 mg/L; NO2−, 0–0.063 mg/L; SO4−2, 3.0–07.0 mg/L; Fe, 0–1.2 mg/L; Mn, 0–0.018 mg/L. Total coliform and Escherichia coli were below the minimum detection limit (MDL) of 20 MPN per 100 ml in all the samples. The concentrations of most of the investigated parameters in the drinking water samples from Ashanti region were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guidelines.
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