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Attachments of implant retained tissue supported denture under biting forces

Author(s): J. Żmudzki | W. Chladek | J. Krukowska

Journal: Archives of Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering
ISSN 1689-9210

Volume: 1;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 13;
Date: 2009;
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Keywords: Biomaterials | Overdenture | Attachment | Load | Finite Element Method

Purpose: In implant retained soft tissue supported type dentures functioning of attachments, presented bytheir producers as mechanically bio-compatible because of the ensured freedom of rotational displacements isaccompanied by numerous problems that seem to be caused by excessive bearing of occlusal loads.Design/methodology/approach: For the purposes of attachments loadings evaluation, built was a threedimensionalFEM model of a denture situated on an atrophic prosthetic foundation with joint supports assumed inthe area of denture attachment to implants. Analysis of attachments loadings has been carried out under unilateraloblique occlusal forces of 100N in molars and incisors zones.Findings: Used methodology made it possible to determine attachments loading in a quantitative manner. Inspite of free rotational movements implantological supports bear significant part of horizontal occlusal forcescomponents, which reach the value of 66N during chewing processes.Research limitations/implications: Examined was only the most commonly used type of attachments. Hence,further studies, apart from constrains enabling rotational movements introduced should be also an axial compliancewhich is already offered by some types of attachments, and which additionally enables sedimentation of thedenture towards the axes of implants.Practical implications: Analysis of loadings related to implantological attachments in case of assuming onlya vertical component of occlusal forces leads to a significant underestimation of implantological supports loadsvalues. In the presented analysis, taking into account the influence of the obliquely acting occlusal forces that occurin real chewing conditions, it has been proved that freedom of rotational movements of overdenture`s attachmentsdoes not allow to use the natural supports of mucous membrane. That explains the reason of attachments andacrylic resin dentures damages, as well as the significant number of lost implants of upper denture resultingfrom biomechanical causes. In clinical practice, achieved should be the most anterior implants’ placement, andespecially in case of flat ridges because of the lack of any bearing surface.Originality/value: Determined loadings of supports might constitute a starting point for further biomechanicalevaluation of attachments solutions that function according to similar principles, without the necessity of buildingcomplex models of the whole system.
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