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Bioremediation: Developments, Current Practices and Perspectives

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Author(s): Keshav Prasad Shukla

Journal: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Journal
ISSN 2150-3516

Volume: 2010;
Start page: GEBJ-3;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: Bioremediation | Phytoremediation | Polyaromatic hydrocarbons | Rhizoremediation

ABSTRACT
Environmental contamination due to anthropogenic and natural sources is increasing day by day because of increase in population,industrialization and urbanization. The enigma for the public, scientists, academicians and politicians is how to tackle thecontaminants that jeopardize the environment. Advances in science and technology, since industrial revolution has also increasinglyenabled humans to exploit natural resources and cause damage to the environment. The ideal solution for pollution abatement isBioremediation, the most effective innovative technology to come along that uses biological systems for treatment of contaminants.Although, this novel and recent technology is a multidisciplinary approach, its central thrust depends on microbiology. Thistechnology includes biostimulation (stimulating viable native microbial population), bioaugmentation (artificial introduction of viablepopulation), bioaccumulation (live cells), biosorption (dead microbial biomass), phytoremediation (plants) and rhizoremediation(plant and microbe interaction). Rhizoremediation, which is the most evolved process of bioremediation, involves the removal ofspecific contaminants from waste product of contaminated sites by mutual interaction of plant roots and suitable microbial flora.This paper represents an exhaustive evaluation with respect to developments, current practices and perspectives of a variety ofapproaches of bioremediation.
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