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A case-control study of oral epithelial proliferative markers among Sudanese Toombak dippers using micronuclei assay, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region, Papanicolaou and crystal violet methods

Author(s): Anass M. Abbas | Hussain G. Ahmed

Journal: Rare Tumors
ISSN 2036-3605

Volume: 5;
Issue: 3;
Start page: e31;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: micronuclei | Toombak | crystal violet | AgNOR | oral cancer

The use of Toombak has been reported to play a major role in the etiology of oral cancer in Sudan. The cellular proliferative activity on the oral epithelium of 210 Toombak dippers was assessed by applying the micronuclei frequency, mean argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) counts, Papanicolaou method, and 1% crystal violet stain. Participants were divided into 3 groups: 200 were apparently healthy individuals, 100 were Toombak users (cases), 100 were non-tobacco users (control) and 10 were patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas. Cytological atypia was identified among 4 (4%). Toombak users and was not found among the control group (P
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