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Characterization of the quinolone resistant determining regions in clinical isolates of pneumococci collected in Canada

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Author(s): Patel Samir | Melano Roberto | McGeer Allison | Green Karen | Low Donald

Journal: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
ISSN 1476-0711

Volume: 9;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 3;
Date: 2010;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from a longitudinal surveillance program in order to determine their susceptibility to currently used fluoroquinolones and of the frequency and type of mutations in the quinolone-resistant determining regions (QRDRs) of their parC and gyrA genes. Methods The Canadian Bacterial Surveillance Network has been collecting clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae from across Canada since 1988. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was carried out according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The QRDRs of the parC and gyrA genes were sequenced for all isolates with ciprofloxacin MIC ≥ 4 mg/L, and a large representative sample of isolates (N = 4,243) with MIC ≤ 2 mg/L. Results A total of 4,798 out of 30,111 isolates collected from 1988, and 1993 to 2007 were studied. Of those isolates that were successfully sequenced, 184 out of 1,032 with mutations in parC only, 11 out of 30 with mutations in gyrA only, and 292 out of 298 with mutations in parC and gyrA were considered resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L). The most common substitutions in the parC were at positions 137 (n = 722), 79 (n = 209), and 83 (n = 56), of which substitutions at positions 79 and 83 were associated with 4-fold increase in MIC to ciprofloxacin, whereas substitutions at position 137 had minimal effect on the ciprofloxacin MIC. A total of 400 out of 622 isolates with Lys-137 parC mutation belonged to serotypes 1, 12, 31, 7A, 9V, 9N and 9L, whereas only 49 out of 3064 isolates with no mutations belonged to these serotypes. Twenty-one out of 30 isolates with substitutions at position 81 of the gyrA gene had an increased MIC to ciprofloxacin. Finally, we found that isolates with mutations in both parC and gyrA were significantly associated with increased MIC to fluoroquinolones. Conclusions Not all mutations, most frequently Lys-137, found in the QRDRs of the parC gene of S. pneumoniae is associated with an increased MIC to fluoroquinolones. The high prevalence of Lys-137 appears to be due to its frequent occurrence in common serotypes.
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