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Charge doping of graphene in metal/graphene/dielectric sandwich structures evaluated by C-1s core level photoemission spectroscopy

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Author(s): Arjun Dahal | Rafik Addou | Horacio Coy-Diaz | James Lallo | Matthias Batzill

Journal: APL Materials
ISSN 2166-532X

Volume: 1;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 042107;
Date: 2013;
Original page

ABSTRACT
We show that for metal/graphene/dielectric sandwich structures, charge doping in graphene depends on both the work functions of the metal and the dielectric. Using C-1s core level photoemission spectroscopy we determine the charge doping in graphene for one-sided metal contacts as well as for sandwich structures that are commonly used in graphene devices. The measured Fermi-level shifts are in good agreement with a model that predicts that the difference in charge doping for graphene on a metal compared to graphene sandwiched between a metal and dielectric is given by ΔEF ≈ 0.44 × √(Φmetal − Φdielectric).
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