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“Community Acquired Methicilin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus” – An Evolutionary Phenomenon.

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Author(s): Sharda Bhagchandani | Pooja Tiwari | Nag B. B. S. P.

Journal: Scholars' Research Journal
ISSN 0976-8459

Volume: 1;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 06;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance | ?-lactamase | Community Acquired (CA) MRSA infections | Hospital acquired (HA) MRSA infections | MRSA | Molecular evolution | Lamarckism.

ABSTRACT
The development of antibiotic resistance by any bacterium is an evolutionary inevitability, a convincing demonstration of their ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions as described by Lamarckian theory of evolution that states that organisms acquire changes that enable them to adapt in response to their environment. The proof can be deduced by studying the timeline of emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram positive bacteria against ? antibiotics like Penicillin, Oxacillin, third generation Cephalosporin, Carbapenems, which act on cell wall synthesis pathways of bacteria. The resistance is acquired by chromosomal or plasmid encoded ?-lactamase production that either inactivate the drug or modify the target thus inhibit access of antibiotic to its target. Among such resistant Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus has shown more prominent incline of multi-drug resistance from 1940-2006 with Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections which are more difficult to be treated. These S. aureus strains cause range of infections from simple boils to highly fatal endocarditis and if such infections remain untreated deadly conditions may occur. This is especially true with MRSA infections which are categorized as Nosocomial- or Community- acquired infections. The most critical condition is with Community-acquired MRSA infections.In the present work, MRSA have been isolated from samples collected from skin, nose as well as fomites such as mobile, computer, table, bags in college premises. Evolutionary incline in antibiotic resistance pattern of these S. aureus isolates is evident by Kirby-Bauer method. MRSA spread in community gives alarming signal for public health as such isolates are resistant to nearly all recommended Beta-lactam antibiotics. These community acquired S. aureus has acquired resistance feature with the course of time after the exposure of antibiotics clearly indicating Lamarckian Evolution.
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