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Community health and social action in the epidemiologic control of infantile Trachoma, Spain (1932-1939)

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Author(s): Bernabeu-Mestre, Josep

Journal: Asclepio : Revista de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia
ISSN 0210-4466

Volume: 63;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 507;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Child trachoma | Epidemiology | School health | Public health nursing | Spain (1932- 1939) | Tracoma infantil | Epidemiología | Salud comunitaria | Salud escolar | Enfermería de salud pública | España | siglo XX (1932-1939)

ABSTRACT
Within the context of the endemic trachoma that affected different regions of Spain until the 1960s, this paper analyses the epidemiological determinants of child trachoma and its treatment, based on a preventive care model which incorporated the concept of community health that took shape during the interwar period. Early detection of cases, together with preventive measures, education, therapy and inspections, such as those carried out by visiting nurses, all helped to control the disease. Our results reaffirm the validity of the horizontal intervention strategies used for improving the sanitary conditions and environmental factors responsible for this prevalence of trachoma.En el contexto de la endemia tracomatosa que afectó a diversas regiones españolas hasta la década de 1960, se analizan los determinantes epidemiológicos del tracoma infantil y su abordaje desde el modelo de asistencia preventiva que encerraba el concepto de salud comunitaria que se perfiló en el período de entreguerras. La detección precoz de casos, unida a actividades preventivas, educativas, terapéuticas y de inspección, como las que llevaron a cabo las enfermeras visitadoras, contribuyeron al control de la enfermedad. Los resultados reafirman la validez de las estrategias de intervención horizontal de mejora de las condiciones higiénicas y de los factores medioambientales que explicaban la prevalencia del tracoma.
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