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A Comprehensive Review on Nickel (II) And Chromium VI Toxicities - Possible Antioxidant (Allium Sativum Linn) Defenses

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Author(s): Kusal K.Das

Journal: Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences
ISSN 0974-1143

Volume: 2;
Issue: 2(Special);
Start page: 43;
Date: 2009;
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Keywords: Nickel(II) | Chromium (VI) | Garlic (allium sativum Linn) | Antioxidant defenses

ABSTRACT
The toxicity associated with nickel (II) and chromium (VI) is mainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with subsequent oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules. Both nickel and chromium can generate free radicals (FR) directly from molecular oxygen in a two step process to produce superoxide anion and in continued process, produce highly toxic hydroxyl radical. The pro-oxidative effects are compounded by fact that they also inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione. Garlic (Allium sativum) has played an important dietary and medicinal role throughout the history of mankind. Garlic has the potential to enhance the endogenous antioxidant status in nickel as well as hexavalent chromium induced lipid peroxidation in normal and diabetic rats.
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