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Eficiência de sistemas alagados construídos na remoção de poluentes de águas residuárias de indústria de laticínios Performance of constructed wetlands systems in pollutants removal of dairy industry wastewater

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Author(s): Antonio T. Matos | Sérgio S. Abrahão | Paola A. V. Lo Monaco

Journal: Engenharia Agrícola
ISSN 0100-6916

Volume: 32;
Issue: 6;
Start page: 1144;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: tratamento de resíduos | leitos cultivados | sistemas wetlands | waste treatment | cultivated beds | wetlands systems

ABSTRACT
Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de sistemas alagados construídos (SACs), cultivados com dois diferentes capins e cinco taxas de carregamento orgânico (TCOs) na remoção de poluentes de águas residuárias de indústria de laticínios (ARL). Para isso, unidades experimentais foram constituídas por um SAC sem vegetação (SV), cinco SACs cultivados com capim-elefante (SACs-CF) e cinco SACs cultivados com capim-tifton 85 (SACs-CT), com escoamento subsuperficial horizontal. A ARL foi aplicada numa vazão média de 60 L d-1 e tempo de residência hidráulica de 4,8 dias e TCOs de 66; 130; 190; 320 e 570 kg ha-1 d-1 de DBO5. Os SACs mostraram-se eficientes na remoção da DBO, DQO e dos SSTs, STs e NTKs, porém foram pouco eficientes na remoção de P-total, K e Na da ARL. As duas forrageiras avaliadas apresentaram semelhante influência no processo de remoção de DBO5, DQO, ST, SST, P-total, K e Na, quando comparadas com sistemas que operaram com mesma taxa de carregamento orgânico, tendo as remoções de DBO e DQO ficado na faixa de 79 a 96 % e 85 a 97 %, respectivamente. O SAC sem vegetação (SV) apresentou desempenho semelhante ao dos SACs vegetados na remoção de DBO5, DQO, ST, SST e Na, enquanto o cultivado com capim-tifton foi mais eficiente na remoção de NTK.The objective for this research was evaluate the efficiency of constructed wetlands systems (CWS), cultivated with two different grasses and five organic loading rates (OLRs), in the removal of pollutants from dairy industry wastewater (DIW). For this, experimental units were formed by a CWS without vegetation (CWS-SV), with five CWS cultivated elephant grass (CWS-EG) and five cultivated with Tifton 85 grass (CWS-TG), with horizontal subsurface flow. The DW has been applied in average flow of 60 L day-1 and hydraulic residence time of 4.8 days and average surface organic loading rates (OLR) of 66, 130, 190, 320 and 570 kg ha-1 day-1 of BOD. The CWS were efficient in removal BOD5, COD, TSS, TS and TKN, but were inefficient in P-total, K and Na removal of the DIW. The two evaluated grass had similar influence in the BOD5, COD, TS, TSS, total-P, K and Na removal, when compared with systems that operated with the same OLR and the removal of BOD5 and COD were in range 79-96 % and 85-97 %. The CWS-SV performance was similar to the cultivated CWS in the removal of BOD5, COD, TS, TSS and Na, but while the cultivated with tifton was more efficient in removing TKN.
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