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Evaluation of covering materials in individual shelters and its effects on physiological responses and performance of dairy calves Avaliação de materiais de cobertura em abrigos individuais sobre respostas fisiológicas e desempenho de bezerros leiteiros

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Author(s): Patrícia C. de F Fonseca | Eduardo A. de Almeida | Roberta Passini

Journal: Engenharia Agrícola
ISSN 0100-6916

Volume: 32;
Issue: 6;
Start page: 1041;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: termorregulação | ganho de peso | conversão alimentar | thermoregulation | weight gain | feed conversion

ABSTRACT
In Tropical regions, the animal performance is often affected by climate conditions. This study aimed to evaluate covering materials in individual shelters, normally used to house dairy calves, and its influence on the calves physiology and performance. The design used was completely randomized, with a 2x3 factorial arrangement to compare the averages of 5% through the Tukey's test, i.e., both genders- and three types of covering in the shelters (Z - zinc; AC - asbestos cement; and WPAC - white-painted asbestos cement). Parameters evaluated included daily weight gain (DWG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed conversion (FC), rectal temperature (RT), and respiratory frequency (RF). Results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) among males (1.04kg/day) and females (0.74kg/day) for DWG and interaction between gender and treatment (P < 0.05) for zinc covering (0.562kg/day for females and 1.120kg/day for males). Significant differences were also observed in FI of animals housed under shelters with the covering of zinc (48.35kgDM/day for females and 96.91 kgDM/day for males). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the FC and the RT, and there were significant differences (P < 0.05) for RF in the Z treatments (56.9 mov.min-1), WPAC (62.2 mov.min-1) and FC (70.25 mov.min-1). It was concluded that different covering materials did not affect performance and dry matter intake of dairy calves. However, the animals' physiology of thermoregulation was altered by the different covering materials used in individual shelters.Nos trópicos, o desempenho animal é prejudicado pela ação do clima. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar materiais de cobertura em abrigos individuais sobre a fisiologia e o desempenho de bezerros leiteiros. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, fatorial 2 X 3, para a comparação das médias ao nível de 5%, pelo teste de Tukey, ou seja, dois sexos e três tipos de coberturas (Z - zinco; CA - cimento-amianto e CAB - cimento-amianto pintado de branco). Foram medidos o ganho de peso diário (GPD), o consumo alimentar (CMS), a conversão alimentar (CA), a temperatura retal (TR) e a frequência respiratória (FR). Os resultados mostraram que houve diferença significativa (P < 0,05) entre machos (1,04 kg/dia) e fêmeas (0,74 kg/dia) para GPD, interação sexo e tratamento (P < 0,05) para a de cobertura de zinco (0,562 kg/dia para fêmeas e 1,120 kg/dia para machos), e o CMS apresentou diferença significativa para cobertura de zinco (48,35 kgMS/dia para fêmeas e 96,91 kgMS/dia para machos). Não houve diferença significativa (P > 0,05) para CA e TR e observou-se diferença significativa (P < 0,05) para FR nos tratamentos Z (56,9 mov.min-1), CAB (62,2 mov.min-1) e CA (70,25 mov.min-1). Conclui-se que os diferentes tipos de coberturas não influenciaram no desempenho e no consumo alimentar, mas interferiram na fisiologia de termorregulação dos animais.
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