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Extremophiles and extremozymes: Importance in current biotechnology

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Author(s): Gursharan Singh | Aditya Bhalla | Paramjit K. Ralhan

Journal: Extreme Life, Biospeology & Astrobiology
ISSN 2066-7671

Volume: 3;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 46;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: thermophiles | extremophiles | cellulose | xylanase chitinase | amylase | protease

ABSTRACT
The use of biocatalysts in different biochemical reactions is generally restricted to mildambient conditions. However, the enzymes produced by different living organisms inhabiting ecosystemswith extreme conditions of temperature, pH, pressure and solvent are not constrained with mildconditions. It is now known that enzymes can function at temperatures as high as 140°C and as low asbelow freezing point. Organisms living in these conditions are described as extremophiles and theenzymes that function under these environmental situations are called extremozymes. Extremothermophilesare generally known as the thermophiles. This review is discussing about the existence andpotential applications of thermophiles and thermostable enzymes. Applications of such enzymes inmaximizing reactions accomplished in the food, paper, detergent and pharmaceutical industries, toxicwastes removal is being studied.

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