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Genetic and Ecotypic Characterization of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Poland

Author(s): SUŁKOWSKA, Małgorzata

Journal: Acta Silvatica & Lignaria Hungarica
ISSN 1786-691X

Volume: 6;
Start page: 115;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: isoenzyme analysis / DNA-RAPD markers | genetic variation | genetic differentiation | progeny differentiation

European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is one of the most important forest tree species inPoland and it covers 5.2% of forest area. Present genetic structure of beech populations has beenformed within the last few thousand years and influenced by many different factors, not only ofenvironmental (postglacial) and genetic origin, but also by anthropogenic ones. In Poland, beechattains its north-eastern limit of natural range, and is limited by continental climate, wintertemperatures, air humidity and soil conditions. The growth of beech stands outside the natural beechlimit indicates that the species possesses a potentially wider range.Based on their phytosociological characteristics, nine beech experimental plots of one hectare areawere established in selected seed stands, representing the typical plant associations and the most importantbeech provenance (seed) regions. The genetic analyses were performed using isoenzymeelectrophoresis for seven loci (GOT, LAP, MDH, MNR, PGM, PGI, SKDH) and DNA markers usingRAPD primers. The following genetic parameters were calculated: average number of alleles perlocus, percentage of polymorphic loci and heterozygosity (on the basis of isoenzyme analysis).Dendrograms based on genetic distances were constructed.There is a slight decrease of genetic variation of beech populations towards the north of Poland,which can be explained by migration paths and selection after the glacial period. The geneticdifferentiation of beech in Poland does not allow distinguishing provenance regions. The data show amosaic character of species differentiation and an ecotypic variation.
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