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Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis: A current review

Author(s): Nowilaty Sawsan | Al-Shamsi Hanan | Al-Khars Wajeeha

Journal: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
ISSN 0974-9233

Volume: 17;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 224;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: Fundus Autofluorescence | Idiopathic Juxtafoveolar Retinal Telangiectasis | Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia | Laser Photocoagulation | Optical Coherence Tomography | Photodynamic Therapy | Parafoveal Telangiectasis | Subretinal Neovascularization | Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis (IJFT), also known as parafoveal telangiectasis or idiopathic macular telangiectasia, refers to a heterogeneous group of well-recognized clinical entities characterized by telangiectatic alterations of the juxtafoveolar capillary network of one or both eyes, but which differ in appearance, presumed pathogenesis, and management strategies. Classically, three groups of IJFT are identified. Group I is unilateral easily visible telangiectasis occurring predominantly in males, and causing visual loss as a result of macular edema. Group II, the most common, is bilateral occurring in both middle-aged men and women, and presenting with telangiectasis that is more difficult to detect on biomicroscopy, but with characteristic and diagnostic angiographic and optical coherence tomography features. Vision loss is due to retinal atrophy, not exudation, and subretinal neovascularization is common. Group III is very rare characterized predominantly by progressive obliteration of the perifoveal capillary network, occurring usually in association with a medical or neurologic disease. This paper presents a current review of juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis, reviewing the classification of these entities and focusing primarily on the two most common types encountered in clinical practice, i.e., groups I and II, describing their clinical features, histopathology, natural history, complications, latest results from imaging modalities and functional studies, differential diagnosis, and treatment modalities.
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