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Impact of Window-to-Wall Surface Area for Different Window Glass Types and Wall Orientations on Building Energy Performance: A Case Study for a School Building Located in Izmir, Turkey

Author(s): Yusuf YILDIZ | Türkan GÖKSAL ÖZBALTA | Zeynep DURMUŞ ARSAN

Journal: Megaron
ISSN 1309-6915

Volume: 6;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 30;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Window to external wall ratio | glazing type | orientation | energy consumption | hot-humid climate.

The opaque and transparent surfaces of buildings have an important role in the total percentage of energy loss or gain. Heat loss or gain from windows are dependent on the window-to-wall area ratio, the window glass type, and the type of window frame used. In the concept of energy efficient design, heat loss or gain from windows should be analyzed in detail in the early stages of building design by considering local climatic conditions. This study investigates a school building located in Izmir in Turkey, a city with a hot and humid climate. Various glass types with different glazing characteristics and number of layers, located in different parts of the buildings and with different window-to-wall ratios are analyzed and compared using building the energy analysis program “EnergyPlus”. Results indicate that window- to-wall area ratios, wall orientation and glass types are important factors in the building’s total energy consumption. When the window-to-wall area ratio is increased from 10% to 60%, the winter heating load of the building decreases in maximum amount on the south side of the building and reduces in minimum amount on the east side of the building. When summer cooling load is investigated the highest increase in energy consumption is found on the south side of the building. On the eastern and western sides of the building the effect of increased energy consumption value remains low. When the total energy consumption (cooling + heating) is considered, it is calculated that the east and west sides have the biggest total effect and the northern wall has the smallest total effect. When low emissivity glass is used instead of double layer glass, in terms of energy consumption the building side order of effect remains the same, although actual values differ. It is therefore clear that using energy analysis programs to analyse different factors within the energy consumption of buildings will be beneficial in creating energy efficient solutions. This can be carried out in the earlier stages of the architectural design of the buildings or at the renovation stages of existing buildings.
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