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In-vitro antibacterial evaluation of ethanolic stem crude extracts of anacardium occidentale linn. (anacardiaceae) on streptococcus mutans associated with dental caries

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Author(s): O.J. Akinjogunla | I.T. Adenugba | O.M. Jumbo

Journal: Scientific Journal of Microbiology
ISSN 2322-2948

Volume: 1;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 71;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Streptococcus mutans | Cashew | Caries | Phytochemical | Antibacterial

ABSTRACT
The preliminary phytochemistry and antibacterial activity of ethanolic stem crude extracts of Anacardium occidentale on Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries were determined using chemical, standard microbiological and agar disc diffusion techniques. The phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic stem crude extracts of Anacardium occidentale revealed the presence of alkaloids (+++), phenolics (+++), saponins (+), tannins (++), flavonoids (++), phlobatanins (+), anthraquinones (+), terpenes (++), deoxy-sugar (++) and cardiac glycosides (+). The results showed that between 65.2% to 95.6% of S. mutans isolated were sensitive to different concentrations of ethanolic stem crude extracts of A. occidentale with Activity Index (A.I) ranging from 0.38 to 1.22. Ethanolic stem crude extracts of A. occidentale showed the highest mean zones of Inhibition (17.9 ± 1.3mm) at 50.0 mgml-1 and lowest inhibition diameter (6.5±1.5mm) at 12.5 mgml-1 on S. mutans, thus, exhibiting concentration dependent activity. The results show that S. mutans with code WD09 was resistant to Streptomycin, Amoxycillin, di-methyl sulphoxide and A. occidentale ethanolic stem crude extracts. Therefore, there is a need to consider the use of this potent ethanolic stem crude extracts of Anacardium occidentale that have shown some measures of antimicrobial potency, judging by the antibacterial activity and activity index for developing synthetic drugs against dental caries caused by Streptococcus mutans.
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