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INFLUENCE OF WATER DISTRIBUTION UNIFORMITY, APPLIED THROUGH DRIP IRRIGATION EQUIPMENT, TO TREES GROWTH AND FRUCTIFICATION, IN HIGH DENSITY APPLE ORCHARDS

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Author(s): Nicolae Tănăsescu | Emil Chițu | Dorin Sumedrea | Florin Cristian Marin

Journal: Fruit Growing Research
ISSN 2286-0304

Volume: XXVIII;
Start page: 104;
Date: 2012;
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Keywords: localized irrigation | uniformity

ABSTRACT
The Global warming associated with rainfall deficits manifested on increasing large areas, has led to the expansion of irrigated areas by methods that save water and use it more efficiently. In this way, localized irrigation, particularly drip irrigation, has expanded in fruit growing. Mass market for irrigation equipment led to the neglect of design parameters (flow, pressure, irrigation water quality filtration), for a correct operation of irrigation systems. In theory, the drip irrigation systems have a better uniformity of water distribution than sprinkler irrigation for example, but the design of the installation of irrigation equipment can lead to irregular water distribution along the length of a row of trees of over 100-120 m. The present paper highlights the influence of different water flow issued by dripping, to different rules of watering and irrigation applied to the length of the rows of trees, of the following parameters: the increase of growth of the cross-sectional area of the trunk (TCSA); the weight of the branches removed by pruning per tree (MR); the average of fruit mass (MF); the average number of fruits per tree (NF); the fruit production per tree (Y). In a high density apple orchard, on the variety ‘Topaz’/M9, in the IIIrd and IVth year after planting, there have been significant direct correlations between parameters above referred, and flow-rates determined at drippers along the trees rows length. Thus, the production of fruits per tree, recorded in the IVth year at planting, decreased from 13.24 kg/ trees at an average flow of drippers of 63 ml/min, to 10.7 kg/ trees at an average flow of drippers of 32 ml/min.
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