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INNATE, ADAPTIVE AND INTRINSIC IMMUNITY IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION

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Author(s): Suneth S. Perera | Nitin K. Saksena

Journal: American Journal of Infectious Diseases
ISSN 1553-6203

Volume: 8;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 132;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Innate Immune System | Adaptive Immune System | TLRs | Endogenous Anti-Viral Factors

ABSTRACT
The first line of defence of the innate immune system functions by recognizing highly conserved sets of molecular structures specific to the microbes, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs via the germ line-encoded receptors Pattern-Recognition Receptors (PRRs). In addition to the innate immune system, the vertebrates have also evolved a second line of defence termed adaptive immune system, which uses a diverse set of somatically rearranged receptors T-Cell Receptors (TCRs) and B Cell Receptors (BCRs), which have the inherent ability to effectively recognise diverse antigens. The innate and adaptive immune systems are functionally tied in with the intrinsic immunity, which comprises of endogenous antiviral factors. Thus, this effective response to diverse microbial infections, including HIV, requires a coordinated interaction at several functional levels between innate, adaptive and intrinsic immune systems. This review provides a snapshot of roles played by the innate, adaptive and the intrinsic immune systems during HIV-infection, along with discussing recent developments highlighting the genomic basis of these responses and their regulation by micro-RNA (miRNAs).
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