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Mobile measurements of ship emissions in two harbour areas in Finland

Author(s): L. Pirjola | A. Pajunoja | J. Walden | J.-P. Jalkanen | T. Rönkkö | A. Kousa | T. Koskentalo

Journal: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions
ISSN 1867-8610

Volume: 6;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 7149;
Date: 2013;
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Four measurement campaigns by a mobile laboratory van were performed in two different environments; inside the harbour areas in the city center of Helsinki and along the narrow shipping channel near the city of Turku, Finland, during the winter and summer conditions in 2010–2011. The characteristics of gaseous (CO, CO2, SO2, NO, NO2, NOx) and particulate (number and volume size distributions as well as PM2.5) emissions for 11 ships regularly operating on the Baltic Sea were studied to determine the emission parameters. The highest particle concentrations were 1.5 × 106 and 1.6 × 105 cm−3 in Helsinki and Turku, respectively, and the particle number size distributions had two modes. The dominating mode was peaking at 20–30 nm and the accumulation mode at 80–100 nm. The majority of the particle mass was volatile since after heating the sample to 265 °C, the particle volume of the studied ships decreased by around 70%. The emission factors for NOx varied in the range of 25–100 g (kg fuel)−1, for SO2 in the range of 2.5–17.0 g (kg fuel)−1, for particle number in the range of (0.32–2.26) × 1016 particles (kg fuel)−1, and for PM2.5 between 1.0–4.9 g (kg fuel)−1. The ships equipped with SCR had lowest NOx emissions whereas the ships with DWI and HAM had lowest SO2 emissions but highest particulate emissions. For all ships the averaged fuel sulphur contents (FSCs) were less than 1% (by mass) but none of those was below 0.1% which will be the new EU directive from 1 January 2015 in the SOx Emission Control Areas, indicating big challenges for ships operating on the Baltic Sea.
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