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MOLECULAR GENETICS OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE IDIOPATHIC TYPE

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Author(s): DAS BHOWMIK A. | MUKHOPADHYAY K.

Journal: International Journal of Genetics
ISSN 0975-2862

Volume: 4;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 99;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: intellectual disability | nonsyndromic | idiopathic | genetics

ABSTRACT
Intellectual disability (ID), a phenomenon characterized by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning with deficits in adaptive behavior, such as daily-living skills, social skills and communication, is of common occurrence throughout the world. Depending on the diagnostic methods used, 2-85 individuals per 1000 are diagnosed with ID. Extraordinarily heterogeneous causes like environmental, chromosomal and/or genetic defects have been found to be associated with ID. Among these, genetic abnormalities are frequently encountered in connection with ID and therefore, unraveling the genetic causes of ID is one of the greatest challenges for molecular geneticists. Recent advances in high resolution comparative genomic hybridization and annotation of genomic sequence have helped in identifying cryptic changes and different syndromes not known earlier. Further, several novel X-linked and autosomal genes, that may lead to ID, have been identified by molecular genetic approaches and the process is still going on. In this review, an attempt has been made to compile recent advances in the molecular genetics of ID and in discovering new genetic conditions that may give rise to nonsyndromic ID or idiopathic ID (IID). From the evidences obtained, genetics of IID turned out to be remarkably complex. It may be inferred that the molecular mechanism behind IID is far from understanding till date and is likely to remain a challenge for clinicians and scientists for years to come.
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