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Multi-locus phylogeny of Pleosporales: a taxonomic, ecological and evolutionary re-evaluation

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Author(s): Y. Zhang | C.L. Schoch | J. Fournier | P.W. Crous | J. de Gruyter | J.H.C. Woudenberg | K. Hirayama | K. Tanaka | S.B. Pointing | J.W. Spatafora | K.D. Hyde

Journal: Studies in Mycology
ISSN 0166-0616

Volume: 64;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 85;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Keywords: Environmental habit | evolution | molecular phylogeny | nutritional mode | taxonomy

ABSTRACT
Five loci, nucSSU, nucLSU rDNA, TEF1, RPB1 and RPB2, are used for analysing 129 pleosporalean taxa representing 59 genera and 15 families in the current classification of Pleosporales. The suborder Pleosporineae is emended to include four families, viz. Didymellaceae, Leptosphaeriaceae, Phaeosphaeriaceae and Pleosporaceae. In addition, two new families are introduced, i.e. Amniculicolaceae and Lentitheciaceae. Pleomassariaceae is treated as a synonym of Melanommataceae, and new circumscriptions of Lophiostomataceae s. str., Massarinaceae and Lophiotrema are proposed. Familial positions of Entodesmium and Setomelanomma in Phaeosphaeriaceae, Neophaeosphaeria in Leptosphaeriaceae, Leptosphaerulina, Macroventuria and Platychora in Didymellaceae, Pleomassaria in Melanommataceae and Bimuria, Didymocrea, Karstenula and Paraphaeosphaeria in Montagnulaceae are clarified. Both ecological and morphological characters show varying degrees of phylogenetic significance. Pleosporales is most likely derived from a saprobic ancestor with fissitunicate asci containing conspicuous ocular chambers and apical rings. Nutritional shifts in Pleosporales likely occured from saprotrophic to hemibiotrophic or biotrophic.
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