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Neurobiologia reakcji stresowej

Author(s): Jerzy Landowski

Journal: Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia
ISSN 1896-6764

Volume: 2;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 26;
Date: 2007;
Original page

Keywords: stress | neurobiology | endocrinology

The term stress is widely used in many fields of science,and also in everyday language – unfortunately, very oftenin different, even contradictory meanings. Therefore,establishing a general common concept of stress seems tobe very important. The definition of stress should assumethat stress is a common part of everyday life and a reactionto the discrepancy between what is going on and what isexpected. This reaction is adaptive, which means thatresolution of a stressful situation and elaboration of a newstrategy of action are the aims of this basic process.Basically, stress is of biological or psychobiological nature.The paper presents basic information on the subject of thefundamental stress mechanisms. The executive role of thehypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis andsympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system are described.The importance of the glucocorticoid feedback controlmechanism in regulation and cessation of the stress reactionis emphasized. Besides these two main systems, manyothers are involved in the stress reaction. The noradrenergiccentral system regulatory pathway via the hypothalamusto the peripheral sympathetic system and ascendingprojection to the limbic system and prefrontal cortex, aswell as the dopaminergic system with projections to theprefrontal cortex, play an important role in copingmechanisms. The significance of the prefrontal cortex andhippocampus in stressor identification and monitoring ofthe stress course are mentioned at the end of the paper.
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