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Neuropsychologiczne i neurobiologiczne aspekty pamięci operacyjnej

Author(s): Alina Borkowska

Journal: Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia
ISSN 1896-6764

Volume: 1;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 31;
Date: 2006;
Original page

Keywords: working memory | neuropsychology | neurobiology | molecular genetics

Working memory means an abilities to keep informationfor a short-time and to manipulate them. Workingmemory play a significant role in the organization ofcomplex cognitive functions, adaptational processes,mental plasticity and consciousness.Working memory is connected with the activity ofdorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the brain and with theactivity of different neurotransmitter systems, especiallywith dopaminergic, glutamatergic and BDNF systems.Molecular genetics studies show an association betweenworking memory abilities and polymorphism ofdopaminergic system genes in schizophrenia andpolimorphism of BDNF gene in bipolar disorder.The working memory disturbances are presented inschizophrenia and bipolar disorder and also in healthy firstdegree relatives of patients with schizophrenia and bipolardisorder. Currently they are known as an cognitiveendophenotypic marker of vulnerability to these illnesses.In schizophrenia, working memory disturbances are coreand enduring deficits, and may increase during thecourse of the illness. Working memory dysfunctions areconnected with structural and functional abnormalitiesin prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. Inbipolar disorder during depressive episodes workingmemory disturbances may achieve a similar level as inschizophrenia.The most useful neuropsychological methods for workingmemory assessment are Wisconsin Card Sorting Test andN-back test. The performance on these tests is connectedwith the level of prefrontal cortex dysfunctions. Thesetests are particularly useful in neuroimaging studiesperformed during cognitive stimulation.
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